|Detail from a portrait of an unknown lady by Ulrika Fredrica Pasch, 1770|
Actually, I need more than one, a small one that goes for the earlier 18th century and a big one for the later decades. However, I will make a small one now. I have had my eyes on a style that seems to have been popular 1740-1770, or so, where the ruffle is standing out like a halo around the face and is often called wired caps. After looking at ever cap of that kind I realized that even if they have the halo effect, there are several styles to this kind of cap. It is never easy, is it? I strongly suspect that caps were never ever a set style, but rather something you made up as you went, borrowing style elements from where it pleased you. Of course, geography and current fashion trend are influences that lay heavy on you.
A basic cap has a rather simple construction, there is the crown and the band at the very minimum and very often a ruffle. Some also have lace lappets that hang down the back. Extant examples show that the whole cap could be made of linen or lace, or a combination of materials. As crown, band and ruffle could have a variety of shapes, which must have been a very easy way to obtain different looks. For some useful information and free patterns, see links at the end of the post.
I'm uncertain if all caps that stand out from the face are wired. Some may very well be just heavily starched. The first picture at the post and the ones just below here, are clearly wired. At first I thought that the lace was pleated, but thought that may be the case on some, I also think that it is mounted on a wire framework. It looks like pleating at the first glance, but the lace pattern would be broken if there were pleats.
This cap looks like it is pleated, on the other hand. You can also see what looks like wire running through the middle and top.
|Detail from a painting of an unknown woman by Benjamin Branting Nilsson|
|Detail from a portrait of Countess Maria Eustachia Porporato by Maria Giovanna Clementi La Clementina|
|Detail from a portrait of Annushka, a serf from Siberia by Ivan Argunov, 1767|
Many caps have this little dip in front, which is probably a lot easier to maintain if the edge is wired than just starched and shaped.
|Detail from a portrait of a noblewoman by Donat Nonotte, 1760|
|Detail from a portrait of Madame François Buron by Jacques Louis David, 1769|
|Detail from a portrait of Dorothea Sopia Thiele by Anton Raphael Mengs, 1744|
|Detail from a portrait by Pietro Rotari|
A few black lace caps. I assume that this is a widows mark as the women wearing black caps seems to be middle aged.
|Detail from a portrait of Empress Maria Theresia of Austria by Jean-Étienne Liotard|
|Detail from a portrait of Madame Sophie by Franz Bernhard Frey, 1766|
|Detail of a portrait of an unknown lady by Louis Tocque|
Caps that I think are just starched and not wired. Perhaps.
|Detail from a portrait of Portrait of Madame Restout by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, 1738|
|Detail from a portrait of the child Nicole Ricard by Maurice Quentin de La Tour|
|Detail of a portrait of Kristina Sofia Sack by Gustaf Lundberg|
Caps that are tied under the chin.
|Detail from a portrait of Theresa Concordia Mengs by Anton Raphael Mengs, 1745|
|Detail from a portrait of Rosamund Sargent by Allan Ramsey, 1749|
|Detail from a portrait of Madame Lenoir by Joseph Siffred Duplessis, 1764|
|Detail from a portrait of Mademoiselle Salle by Maurice Quentin de La Tour|
|Detail from a portrait of Countess de Rieux by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, 1742|
Commercial cap patterns:
Wired cap pattern
Cap patterns from Nehelenia Patterns
I haven't found anyone who has made a wired cap, but here are a few other cap tutorials of interest:
A Frolic Through Time has made an adorable dormeuse cap, part 1 and part 2 and part 3.
A Fashionable Frolic's round eared cap.
Couture Maya has made several caps.
Art, Beauty and A Well-ordered Chaos has a step by step tutorial for making a cap.